Title : The presentation, diagnosis and treatment of pterygium inversum unguis in the pediatric population: A narrative review of the literature
Background: Pterygium inversum unguis is a rare condition of the vascular epidermis of the nail bed, in which the distal nail bed remains attached to the ventral surface of the nail plate, obliterating the distal groove. As this disorder is incredibly rare, the origin is unknown, but has been observed to present both a congenital condition and an acquired disorder.
Objective: The aim of our investigation is to conduct a broad review of the literature regarding pterygium inversum unguis, and focus a narrative review of the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition on the pediatric population.
Results: Thirty-seven new cases of pterygium inversum unguis have been observed, with the majority presenting as secondary to another condition or idiopathically, and only five cases presenting in the pediatric population.
Conclusion: Our study and the review of the literature demonstrate that the most common forms of pterygium inversum unguis are due to acquired, secondary illness. Additionally, there is a correlation between pterygium inversum unguis and connective tissue disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. Further, the analysis of pterygium inversum unguis in the pediatric population reveals a congenital disease to be most common, but further research is needed to elucidate clear guidelines for diagnosis and treatment in this population.