Nail disorders are a common reason for seeing a dermatologist. The nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and nail fold constitute the adult nail organ. Nail disorders can affect people of all ages. During the physical examination, a thorough examination of the fingernails and toenails may uncover localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or it may offer indications to an underlying systemic condition that requires further investigation. Clinical examination, dermatoscopy, diagnostic imaging, microbiological (including mycological) tests, and histological investigation are all used to evaluate them. There are only a few pathogenic responses that the nail can elicit. Idiopathic disorders, infections, cancers, and drug-induced reactions are all instances of these alterations. Approximately half of all nail disorders are caused by infections, 15% by inflammatory or metabolic conditions, and 5% by malignancies and pigment changes.
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